Gaskets are mechanical seals, usually formed like a ring and used for sealing of flange joints.
Spiral-Wound Gaskets are used with raised face flanges.They are available with an inner ring and outer ring, which is also known as the cantering ring. Ring Joint Gaskets are used with Ring Type Joint (RTJ) flanges. They are available in octagonal or oval cross sections. A very high surface stress is developed between an RTJ gasket and the flange groove when RTJ is bolted up in a flange.
This leads to plastic deformation of the gasket.Thus, the hardness of the gasket is kept less than the hardness of the groove to achieve coining i.e. bringing two metal surfaces of different hardness so tightly together that the softer surface deforms to match harder surface exactly in shape and finish. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piping_and_plumbing_fitting
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes.
For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.5 Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles.Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam.
When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour.Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale formation and corrosion.
At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation.At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life.
Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler#Safety
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